While exploring the charges of anti-intellectualism one is confronted by the ministry of John Wesley, whose call to holy living gave birth to much of the revival efforts which launched the holiness movement. W.B. Fitzgerald , writing in The Roots of Methodism (1903) noted that John Wesley condemned the misuses of the educational institutions of his day - filled with gaming, drinking, and sloth -  he still "sought to bring the purest literature and finest scholarly genius within reach of the multitudes" and reminds that "Methodism was born in a university" (pg. 61-62).


In 1928, the Bishop of the Pentecostal Holiness Church , J.H.King, gently scolded his church on the low attendance at a recent round of Bible Conferences: "...as long as we have a ministry that does not study the word of God and have no interest in Bible Conference work, we will have stagnation and death where such may live and labor. A non-biblical ministry is loud, noisy, empty and inefficient. May there place soon be vacant." (Advocate, June 21, 1928, pg. 1)

Author Richard M. Nanez, writing in Full Gospel, Fractured Minds, acknowledged the charges of anti-intellectualism made against Evangelicalism, and by extension the Pentecostal movement. In turn he had noted that Pentecostalism, in its first 100 years, created few works which addressed the life of the mind (Nanez, 86). Edith Blumhofer in her history of the Assemblies of God has noted that early Pentecostal schools constantly faced the challenge of being unable to find people educationally qualified and Pentecostal to teach in their schools (quoted in Nanez, 116).

What was needed was summed up by Arthur Holmes writing in The Idea of the Christian College (1975): "the student must realize that his education is a Christian vocation...a wholehearted response to God." (pg.51)

As the 21st century dawns, once again the crossroads are just ahead, God is after-all a God of second chances, and decisions await.  Should Pentecostalism and all people of deep faith, be in King's words 'loud, noisy, empty, and inefficient' or new millennia Paul's able to work in the realm of the spirit and the realm of the mind with equal facility and skill?

"Come let reason together..."


Scholar of Note

One particular scholar has won praise for work which spans both the Holiness and Pentecostal Movements. Dr. Charles E. Jones earned his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin. In addition to his writing he has held archival, library, and teaching positions at the University of Michigan, Houghton College, and Brown University.

When he began his first work little had been done to identify and describe the publications, books, and periodicals of holiness groups.  Many were in danger of being forever forgotten and important history lost forever.  His Guide to the Holiness Movement helped countless researchers, archivists, and historians identify important threads, works, individuals and make crucial relational links. The same applied to subsequent works covering other groups and movements. His tireless searches, interviews, and research truly came at just the right time to save such information before it was forever lost.

In 2008, he won the Smith-Wynkoop Book Award, an honor of the Wesleyan Theological Society (WTJ, Fall 2008).  This was the first time a work of theological and historical bibliography had won the award.  His massive and detailed corpus of work - well over three thousand pages - is truly worthy of such recognition and they have each served as research helps to people in numerous fields of study around the globe.

His major works include - 
  • The Guide to the Study of the Holiness Movement. 1974 .
  • Perfectionist Persuasion. 1974.
  • Black Holiness.
  • The Charismatic Movement
  • The Wesleyan Holiness Movement: A Comprehensive Guide. 2005.
  • Keswick Holiness Association: A Comprehensive Guide. 2006.
  • Holiness-Pentecostal Movement: A Comprehensive Guide. 2008

His personal papers are in the Fuller Theological Seminary Library Archive.   His work represents an outstanding and important contribution to the social, theological, and literary history of the Holiness, Pentecostal, and Charismatic Movements.

On the Air

Hubert T. Spence of the Pentecostal Holiness Church preached over radio station, WINX in Washington, D.C. in the mid 1940's. It was a time when new technological innovations were being tested as tools of ministry, education, and evangelism.  The church he pastored was located at 1015 D Street Northeast.  His successor was Dallas M. Tarkenton.

In 1945 the church published "Twelve Radio Sermons as preached over Station WINX, Washington, D.C." by Pastor Hubert T. Spence. It was as small paperback work.   Contents included: Spiritual and Moral Preparedness; Religion for Youth ; Radio Bible Course ; God Our Only Hope ; My Personal Testimony ; America's Worst Enemy ; Repentance ; A Sermon for Our Boys Overseas on "Mother's Day"; The Parable of the Great Supper ; Pentecost ; A Prayer for Victory and Peace ; The Better Approach Toward World Order ;The Kingdom of God ; Fourth Anniversary Bulletin (reprint).

The radio program ministry had its "inception in the minds of the young folks of our church, prompted of course, by the Holy Spirit."  The first service was broadcast Sunday morning February 16, 1941 at 8:30 at the station WINX. The first two years it went under the name " Christian Youth on the March." On the second anniversary the broadcast moved to the church and the name changed to "The Pentecostal Revival Hour."   On the first Sunday of 1944 they began broadcasting the entire Sunday morning service (11:05 to 12:00).  

Early Pentecostal Education

One early Pentecostal institution of learning was the Franklin Springs Institute, later Emmanuel College, in Franklin Springs, Georgia.  It opened in 1919 under the auspices of the Pentecostal Holiness Church. In their 1953-1954  "Bulletin" they stated their purpose in a particularly clear and future focused manner. It is noteworthy in the broader considerations of the state of education, learning, and intellectualism within early Pentecostalism.

"The purpose of Emmanuel College is to train young men and young women for efficient Christian citizenship, leadership, and service in all vocations of life. The school holds that a liberal education must include the training of the head, heart, and hand.   Students must be trained not only to know, but to feel, and to act. The school is especially designed to give this training in full harmony with the principles of the Bible." (pg.9)

Research Project Seeks Information on Early Pentecostal Libraries

A research project is looking for information concerning early libraries in Pentecostal schools (in any denomination).  Book lists, reading assignments, textbook titles, memories of the library area are sought.  People who worked in such early institutions as student helpers, librarians, or clerks are sought for possible interviews.

People who attended school in these institutions are particularly sought for information:

  • Southwestern Bible College , Assemblies of God, Enid, Oklahoma (1927-1938)
  • King's College, Pentecostal Holiness Church, Kingfisher, Oklahoma (1926-1935)
  • Southwestern Bible College, Pentecostal Holiness Church, Oklahoma City (1946-1970)
  • Oral Roberts University, Tulsa, Oklahoma (1965- 1970)


Marilyn A. Hudson